Tuesday, July 28, 2009

To Kill a Mockingbird--Key Facts

Key Facts

FULL TITLE · To Kill a Mockingbird

AUTHOR · Harper Lee


GENRE · Coming-of-age story; social drama; courtroom drama; Southern drama

LANGUAGE · English

TIME & PLACE WRITTEN · Mid-1950s; New York City


PUBLISHER · J. B. Lippincott

NARRATOR · Scout narrates the story herself, looking back in retrospect an unspecified number of years after the events of the novel take place.

POINT OF VIEW · Scout narrates in the first person, telling what she saw and heard at the time and augmenting this narration with thoughts and assessments of her experiences in retrospect. Although she is by no means an omniscient narrator, she has matured considerably over the intervening years and often implicitly and humorously comments on the naïveté she displayed in her thoughts and actions as a young girl. Scout mostly tells of her own thoughts but also devotes considerable time to recounting and analyzing Jem’s thoughts and actions.

TONE · Childlike, humorous, nostalgic, innocent; as the novel progresses, increasingly dark, foreboding, and critical of society

TENSE · Past

SETTING · 1933–1935  · The fictional town of Maycomb, Alabama


MAJOR CONFLICT · The childhood innocence with which Scout and Jem begin the novel is threatened by numerous incidents that expose the evil side of human nature, most notably the guilty verdict in Tom Robinson’s trial and the vengefulness of Bob Ewell. As the novel progresses, Scout and Jem struggle to maintain faith in the human capacity for good in light of these recurring instances of human evil.

RISING ACTION · Scout, Jem, and Dill become fascinated with their mysterious neighbor Boo Radley and have an escalating series of encounters with him. Meanwhile, Atticus is assigned to defend a black man, Tom Robinson against the spurious rape charges Bob Ewell has brought against him. Watching the trial, Scout, and especially Jem, cannot understand how a jury could possibly convict Tom Robinson based on the Ewells’ clearly fabricated story.

CLIMAX · Despite Atticus’s capable and impassioned defense, the jury finds Tom Robinson guilty. The verdict forces Scout and Jem to confront the fact that the morals Atticus has taught them cannot always be reconciled with the reality of the world and the evils of human nature.

FALLING ACTION · When word spreads that Tom Robinson has been shot while trying to escape from prison, Jem struggles to come to terms with the injustice of the trial and of Tom Robinson’s fate. After making a variety of threats against Atticus and others connected with the trial, Bob Ewell assaults Scout and Jem as they walk home one night, but Boo Radley saves the children and fatally stabs Ewell. The sheriff, knowing that Boo, like Tom Robinson, would be misunderstood and likely convicted in a trial, protects Boo by saying that Ewell tripped and fell on his own knife. After sitting and talking with Scout briefly, Boo retreats into his house, and Scout never sees him again.

THEMES · The coexistence of good and evil; the importance of moral education; social class

MOTIFS · Gothic details; small-town life

SYMBOLS · Mockingbirds; Boo Radley

FORESHADOWING · The Gothic elements of the novel (the fire, the mad dog) build tension that subtly foreshadows Tom Robinson’s trial and tragic death; Burris Ewell’s appearance in school foreshadows the nastiness of Bob Ewell; the presents Jem and Scout find in the oak tree foreshadow the eventual discovery of Boo Radley’s good-heartedness; Bob Ewell’s threats and suspicious behavior after the trial foreshadow his attack on the children.

Tuesday, May 19, 2009

Mr. McLaughlin's English 10B Vocabulary: Unit 4 SAT/ACT Words

4.1 ASTUTE ( ) quick in descernment; shrewd, clever, keen.
Larry thought a new SUIT would make him appear more ASTUTE for his job interview

Louisa has a natural ASTUTENESS in dealing with angry people and winning them over to her view, thereby settling matters amicably.

4.2 BLATHER ( ) to talk nonsensically
Karen and Allison BLATHERED until their mouths LATHERED.

Everything the media reported about the supposed plane disaster never happened. It was a bunch of BLATHER by uninformed journalists.

4.3 CONGENIAL ( ) pleasant to be around; social, agreeable
Folks in JEANS are very CONGENIAL.

Miss Florida was voted Miss CONGENIALITY in the Miss America pageant.

Dr. Armstrong was very CONGENIAL, always a smile and a kind word for his patients, and candies for the children.

4.4 DOLDRUMS ( ) a period or condition of depression or inactivity
All covered with dust, the DOLL DRUMS were in the DOLDRUMS.

Ever since Jackie’s dog died, the little fellow has not touched his toys, moping around day after day in the DOLDRUMS.

For thirteen days we were becalmed in the Horse Latitudes near the equator, out ship drifting in the DOLDRUMS without the faintest breeze to fill the sails of out vessel.

4.5 DRACONIAN ( ) hard, harsh, severe, cruel
Count DRACULA often behaved in a DRACONIAN manner.

Mr. Jeb had a DRACONIAN personality. Nothing his students did pleased him, and rarely did half of his students get passing grades.

Judge McNamara handed down a DRACONIAN sentence to the defendant, sixty days for littering.

The word DRACONIAN did not originate with the fictional character, Count Dracula, but with an ancient Greek official named Dracula who crated a harsh code of laws.

4.6 MARTYR ( ) someone willing to sacrifice and even give his/her life for a cause; also one who pretends suffering to gain sympathy.
It’s HARDER to be a MARTYR.

She was a professional MARTYR, all- suffering for her children, or so she would tell them ten times a day.

Joan of Arc was undoubtedly the most famous MARTYR in modern history, burned at the stake because she refused to go against her beliefs.

Jack was a MARTYR to his job; he worked seven days a week and rarely took a day off.

4.7 MISNOMER ( ) an incorrect or inappropriate name
What a MISNOMER, our little MISS HOMER struck out five times in a row.

A nickname like “Speedy” is a MISNOMER when directed toward one who is slow at what they do.

We usually have dinner at this very small Italian restaurant called The Spaghetti Factory, obviously a MISNOMER of major proportions.

It was no MISNOMER when the called Harry Houdini, “ The Great HOUDINI,” as he was the greatest escape artist of his time.

4.8 MUSTER ( ) to collect or gather; the act of inspection or critical examination.
Each morning the MUSTARD troops are MUSTERED for roll call.

In 1836 the Texans at the Alamo MUSTERED all the troops available to defend against the invading Mexican Army.

The restaurant owner inspected the kitchen and said the eating utensils did not pass MUSTER, and for the dish washer to wash them all over again.

He was MUSTERED into the army at the age of eighteen.

4.9 OBTUSE ( ) insensitive; block- headed, slow in comprehension.
Don’t be OBTUSE, the gorse-thief gets the NOOSE, not the horse.

Hazel was so OBTUSE she thought a watched pot of water never boils.

The OBTUSENESS of some people is due to their unwillingness to accept new ideas.

Don’t pretend to be so OBTUSE. You know the idea of business investing is to buy low and sell high.

4.10 SCRUTINIZE ( ) to look very carefully; to examine
U.S. Customs officials have SCREW EYES when they SCRUTINIZE baggage.

Newspaper proof readers SCRUTINIZE an entire newspaper each day.

Each soldier’s uniform is SCRUTINIZED by his commanding officer.

I SCRUTINIZED all the books in the library and found several I had wanted.

Monday, May 18, 2009

Final Examination Speech Downloadable Tools


It is my advice to you that you create your work's cited page as you do your research. It will be easier to complete, it will provide you with a reference to the sources that you have used and it will be completed when you're finished researching your topic.


(1) When you copy each entry into Word, make sure that you copy the entry in the gray box, not the copy in white below. They are labeled.
(2) Copy the entire entry, including the period at the end.
(3) When you paste, a small box will appear. Click on it and choose "text only."
(4) Make sure that you indent every line after the first. You have to tab these lines over to make them line up the right way.
(5) Sometimes you have to hit "enter" at the beginning of these lines and then tab over.

CLICK HERE to go directly to the Landmark Project's SON OF CITATION MACHINE. Please choose MLA in the upper left hand corner. Then choose the type of entry that you would like the machine to create.

CLICK HERE to go directly to the SON OF CITATION MACHINGE to create a WORK'S CITED entry for a web page.


CLICK HERE for a copy of a pre-formatted MLA Outline for the Persuasive speech.


Final Examination Speech Rubic page 1.doc

Final Examination Speech Rubic page 1.doc

Final Examination Speech Curriculum Draft page 3.doc

Monroe's Motivated Sequence Used to Persuade an Audience

Originally posted 11/14/2007

Monroe's motivated sequence is a technique for organizing persuasive speeches that inspire people to take action. It was developed in the mid-1930s by Alan H. Monroe. It consists of five steps:

Attention--Accomplished in the Introduction
Get the attention of your audience using a detailed story, shocking example, dramatic statistic, quotations, etc.

Need--Prove the Problem!
Show that the problem about which you are speaking exists, that it is significant, and that it won't go away by itself. Use statistics, examples, etc. Convince your audience that there is a need for action to be taken.

Satisfaction--Show What Others Plan on Doing or Have Done.
Show that this need can be satisfied. Provide specific solutions for the problem that the government and community can implement as a whole.

Visualization--Show Us What We Get
Tell the audience what will happen if the solution is implemented or does not take place. Be visual and detailed.

Action--Accomplished in the Clincher
Tell the audience what action they can take personally to solve the problem.
For Instance, a more generalized format may be;

Monroe’s Motivation Sequence

1. Attention: Hey! Listen to me, I have a PROBLEM!
2. Need: Let me EXPLAIN the problem.
3. Satisfaction: But, I have a SOLUTION!
4. Visualization: If we IMPLEMENT my solution, this is what will happen.
5. Action: You can help me in this specific way. Are YOU willing to help me?

The advantage of Motivated Sequence is that it emphasizes what the audience can do. Too often the audience feels like a situation is hopeless; Monroe's motivated sequence emphasizes the action the audience can take.

Persuasive Speech Ideas

Persuasive speech ideas, a list of 200+ ideas. I also help you to make a choice by finding specific angles of approach. Review the list of speech topics and ideas below. Make a personal short list by selecting three persuasive speech topics you perhaps could use. For now just make a rough inventory. Tickle your imagination, associate and be creative.

# Which of the speech topics are you interested in?
# Do you know something about?
# Would you like to research and persuade your audience about?

These speech topics can be turned into persuasive speech ideas for a public speaking topics assignment. Of course this persuasive speech topic list isn't exhaustive.

25 Free Persuasive Speech Topics

These free persuasive speech topics are for instant use or vary on them and write your own persuasion statement for public speaking or speech class purposes. Start with this sentence I want to persuade the audience that ... and than take one of the speech topics of my general list of persuasive speech sample topics, or select one out of the following 25 pre-fab instant free persuasive speech topics for public speaking:

1. The government should be persuaded to pay for all healthcare. By the way you can fill in other verbs and nouns in most of the free persuasive speech topics in this list. Just tweak.
2. Teachers are not safe in schools.
3. We are better off today than we were eight years ago.
4. We are killing the rainforest.
5. Children in ... fill in the nation of your choice ... are living better.
6. Continue the war on drugs by attacking the ingredients needed.
7. DNA databases jeopardize our privacy.
8. Vanity is not a valid reason for cosmetic plastic surgery.
9. The rich pay, don't pay enough taxes.
10. Return extra taxes collected to those who paid.
11. All MP3 music belong in the free public domain.
12. Needle exchange programs help to prevent.
13. Mothers should be persuaded to avoid fighting in militairy combat front lines.
14. Free speech don't include, include hate speech.
15. Spam e-mails should be, should not be outlawed.
16. We need a single food safety agency. Remember, replace the nouns and you can write easily other free persuasive speech topics.
17. Downloading copyrighted MP3s is not, is wrong.
18. Gay couples should be, should not be allowed to marry.
19. Higher energy prices is a sacrifice we have to make for cleaner fuels.
20. Home schooling provides a better education, is worse for your child.
21. Honesty, integrity and a persuasive mentality are the most important qualities of an elected official. Or vary on the qualities and create your own free persuasive speech topics on gouvernement, state or local politicians.
22. Zero tolerance is a useful instrument to prevent violence.
23. Babysitters younger than 16 years should be forbidden.
24. Human cloning is bad, is good.
25. Restrict every household to 60 gallon can on trash a week.

All persuasive speech topic statements above are not reflecting my personal opinion! These just are samples of free persuasive speech topics.

30+ Instant Persuasive Speech Topics for Free

Persuasive speech topics for free, this is a list with instant persuasive speech topic ideas for public speaking speech assignments. Example persuasive speech topics for free on various society issues:
  1. Gay marriage should be an issue for the states
  2. Flag burning should be prohibited.
  3. Military service should be based on conduct, not sexual orientation.
  4. Education, housing, and hiring must be equal for all.
  5. The Ten Commandments are inherent values in schools.
  6. The Patriot Act violates civil liberties.
  7. The 1st Amendment is not a shield for hate groups.
  8. Support affirmative action in governmental organisations.
  9. Limiting immigration is limiting opportunities.
  10. The police always should investigate all complaints of wife assault.
  11. The amount of spam you see in your mailbox is just the tip of the iceberg.
  12. Ban same-sex marriages.
  13. Academic dishonesty should always be santioned by termination of student status for a specified term.
  14. Wildcat strikes should be legalized.
  15. What you need to know to prevent serious complications with body piercings.
  16. Only buy energy efficient household appliances.
  17. Outsourcing is a good solution for small business owners.
  18. Every citizen should commit to 2,000 hours of voluntary national service in lifetime.
Persuasive speech topics for free on foreign policy and international issues:
  1. No-fly lists of airliners do have a lack of accuracy.
  2. Mankind is responsible for the large loss of biodiversity.
  3. We need an international forestry agency.
  4. Water is a hot issue in the Middle East.
  5. An international certification system for diamond exploration prevents conflict-diamonds trade.
  6. Never negotiate with terrorists.
  7. Water saving methods work in several regions of Africa.
  8. Russia is a growing threath.
  9. Jerusalem must remain an undivided city.
  10. America should stop being the world's policeman.
  11. We need a Marshall Plan for Afghanistan.
  12. The civil rights movement is a success.
  13. Keep talking to the North Koreans.
List of 200+ Persuasive Speech Ideas

Find a persuasive speech topic idea with a specific point of view.

Abuse Of The Elderly
Abused Women
Academic Dishonesty
Academic Freedom
Acid Rain
Affirmative Action
Age Discrimination
Aging Population
Agricultural Policy
Air Pollution
Airline Safety
Alcohol Abuse
Aliens and UFO's
Alternative imprisonment
Alternative Medicine
American Education Reform
Animal Experimentation
Animal Rights
Animal Welfare
Anorexia Nervosa
Arab-Israeli Conflict
Armed Conflicts
Arms Control
Arms Trade
Atomic Energy
Ballot Initiatives
Battered Women
Beginning of Life Issues
Bermuda Triangle
Bilingual Education
Biological and Chemical Weapons
Bird Flu
Birth Control
Body Piercings
Breast Feeding in Public
Cameras in Courtrooms
Campaign Finance Reform
Capital Punishment
Censor Hate Speech
Chain Gangs
Child Labor
Church State Issues
City Curfews Civil Rights
Climate Change Policy
Condoms In Schools
Creationism vs. Evolution
Dating Campus Issues
Death Penalty
Disabilities Act
Domestic Violence Drug Policy
Drunk Driving
Endangered Oceans
Endangered Species
Espionage and Intelligence Gathering
Ethnic Violence
Family Violence
Fat Tax On Food
Foreign Oil Dependence
Foreign Policy
Foster Care
Gay Marriage
Gay Rights
Genetic Engineering
Genetically Engineered Foods
Global Resources
Global Warming
Government Fraud and Waste
Gun Control
Hate Crime
Health Care Policy
Home Schooling
Homeland Security
Homeless in America
Human Cloning
Infectious Diseases
Inner City Poverty
Internet Chatrooms
Islamic Fundamentalism
Juvenile Crime
Language Policy
Legal System
Marriage and Divorce
Media Violence
Medical Ethics
Medicinal Marijuana
Medicine Abuse
Minimum Wage
Missile Defense System
National Tobacco Settlement
Nuclear Technology
Organ Donation
Organized Crime
Physician-Assisted Suicide
Prison regime
Race Relations
Racial Profiling
Rain Forests
Religious Right
Reproductive Technologies
School Uniforms
School Violence
Sex Education
Single Parent Families
Social Security Reform
Social Welfare
Space Exploration
Stadium Taxes
Stem Cell Research
Tax Reform
Teen Pregnancy
Term Limits
Tobacco Industry
Trade with China
US Budget
US War on Drugs
Urban Terrorism
Violent Video Games
Voluntary National Testing
War Crimes
War On Drugs
Water Resources
Weapons Disarmament
Welfare Reform
Women in the Military
Women's Rights
Working Women
World Trade

Narrow Down 3 Persuasive Speech Ideas

Review your short list with persuasive speech ideas and narrow your choices:

* Do you know global, national, state, community, job or school related problems and solutions, issues or controversies, related to the persuasive speech ideas?
* Historical or current events, places, processes, organizations or interesting people?
* Concerns, opinions, beliefs, attitudes or values?
* What did you see about the persuasive speech ideas in the news or read in books?
* Is there a link with personal experiences, professional or personal goals?

The answers help you to find your angle of approach for a persuasive speech. So, select a few specific angles. Those can serve as main points of the persuasive speech ideas.

Thursday, May 14, 2009

Julius Caesar Reading Discussion Questions

Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Study Guide
Discussion Questions

Directions: After reading each act out loud in class, the following questions will be discussed/answered in small groups in class. Each student must write the answers to the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper. All answers should be numbered and headed with the proper act and scene numbers! Most responses will require several sentences in order to be answered completely. Be sure to rephrase the question in your answer.

Act I, Scene 1

1. What is the situation at the beginning of the play?
2. Identify Flavius and Marullus. What are they doing?
3. What is Lupercal?

Act I, Scene 2

4. What warning is given to Caesar? By whom? How does he react?
5. What are the two incidents Cassius tells to Brutus? What is his purpose in telling them?
6. What kind of person does Brutus seem to be? Cassius?
7. What is Caesar's opinion of Antony? of Cassius?
8. What is the report given by Casca?
9. How does Cassius feel about his talk with Brutus?

Act I, Scene 3
10. What is the effect of the storm? It's purpose?11. How does Cassius say he can escape tyranny?12. What is the next step in convincing Brutus?

Act II, Scene 1

1. Explain Brutus' speech that begins: “It must be by his death…”
2. Why do the conspirators want Cicero and then leave him out?
3. Why won't Brutus take an oath?
4. Why does he oppose the assassination of Antony?
5. How has Caesar changed?6. What are some of Portia's characteristics?

Act II, Scene 2

7. Describe the night.
8. What has Caesar decided to do when Decius comes? What reason does he give?
9. Why does he change his mind?
10. What are the two interpretations of the dream?

Act III, Scene 1

1. What was each of the following characters to do at the capitol: Trebonious, Cimber, Casca, Brutus?
2. How do the conspirators react to the assassination?
3. How can you prove the dream was fulfilled?
4. What prophecy is made?
5. What message does Antony's servant bring?
6. What does Antony ask of the conspirators if they plan to kill him?
7. Of what do they assure him?
8. Who doubts the wisdom of answering Antony's request?
9. Summarize Antony’s soliloquy.

Act III, Scene 2

10. How does Brutus justify Caesar's murder when he speaks to the people?
11. How is the point proven to the people?
12. How does Antony arouse the people to mutiny?
13. How does Antony show he understands the people better than Brutus?
14. What three examples does Antony give to prove that Caesar was not ambitious?
15. What are the provisions of Caesar's will?
16. Who is prepared to take control of the government of Rome now?

Act IV, Scene 1

1. What is the Second Triumvirate? Who composes it?
2. What is the new triumvirate planning to do?

Act IV, Scene 2

3. Where are Brutus and Cassius?

Act IV, Scene 3

4. Who quarrels? Why?
5. What does Brutus think of himself?
6. Why does Cassius say he is aweary of the world?
7. What alibi does Cassius use?
8. What news do we hear of Portia? What is Brutus' reaction?
9. Give the arguments pro and con for marching to Philippi. Why does Cassius think the army should be held at Sardis? Why does Brutus think they should march?
10. Why does Caesar's ghost appear to Brutus? What does it say to Brutus?

Act V, Scene 1

1. Where does the scene take place?
2. What do Brutus and Cassius do?

Act V, Scene 3

3. How does Cassius die?
4. How does Pindarus earn his freedom?
5. What happens to Titinius?

Act V, Scene 4

6. How does Brutus die?
7. What do Antony and Octavius say about Brutus?
8. Who wins and becomes ruler of Rome?

Friday, May 1, 2009

In-Text Citations

MLA Parenthetical Citation Formats

The following are a few examples of parenthetical citation formats. For more detailed information, consult the MLA Handbook (6th edition) located on our bookshelves at 808.02 GIB. Please note: When using online resources, page numbers are omitted from the parenthetical citation.

*When you omit the author’s name in your sentence:

One research has found that dreams move backward in time as the night progresses (Dement 71).

*When you mention the author’s name in your sentence:

Freud states that “a dream is the fulfillment of a wish” (154).

When you use a website and mention the author’s name, OMIT the page number:

Smith states that “we are all individuals, similar but different.”

*When you cite more than one work by the same author:

One current theory emphasizes the principle that dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes, “Sleep” 184). But investigation shows that young children’s dreams are “rather simple and unemotional” (Foulkes, “Dreams” 78).

*When the work has two or three authors:

Psychologists hold that no two children are alike (Gesell and Ilg 68).

*When the work has more than three authors:

(Rosenberg et al. 14)

*When the work has no author, begin with the word by which the title is alphabetized in the Works Cited:

Random testing for use of steroids by athletes is facing strong opposition by owners of several of
these teams (“Steroids” 22).

*When you quote or paraphrase a quotation from a book or article that appeared somewhere else:

Bacon observed that “it is hardly possible at once to admire an author and to go beyond him” (qtd. in Guibroy 113).

*When you cite a personal interview:

“Drinking milk made me a better person,” stated the artist (Vanilli). (Note: If you mention the name of your interview subject in your text, no parenthetical citation is necessary.)

*When you are citing several sources for a single passage:

There are negative implications to computerizing commercial art (Parker 2; “Art Nonsense” 43).

When you cite a character in a literary work:

Chai explains, “I reached out and smoothed out the frown lines on his forehead” (Pan 105).

When you cite a long quotation (five lines or more) that is set off from the text (Note that the quote is indented, double spaced, and without quotation marks):

No one is really certain about the origins of the term “Dust Bowl”:

H.L. Mencken in a footnote to the first supplement (1945) to his

monumental The American Language traces the term...to an Associated

Press dispatch sent by staff writer Robert Geiger on April 15, 1935. (French 3)

*When you paraphrase a whole passage or several passages, begin your citation with the author’s or article’s name and end it with the page number:

According to Brown, everytime you read an essay, you are preparing to write one. Therefore, you should pay careful attention to content and form (9).

When quoting from a website, use author (same format as print citation) or, if no author, title. Include page number, if given.

To identify the source of a quotation, paraphrase, or summary, place the author's last name in parentheses after the cited material (Harnack and Kleppinger). b Web pages number in the billions! (SearchQuest).

*These examples have been borrowed from Chico High School Library (CA) and the Purdue University On-Line Writing Lab.

Julius Caesar Characters: Keeping Them Straight

Julius Caesar Characters guide studies each character's role and motivation in this play.

Julius Caesar: The victorious leader of Rome, it is the fear that he may become King and revoke the privileges of men like Cassius that leads to his death at the hands of Cassius, Brutus and their fellow conspirators.

The threat that Caesar was moving away from the ideals of the Roman republic towards an Empire ruled directly by himself is the chief reason so many senators, aristocrats and even

Caesar's friend Brutus, conspired to kill him.

Introduced early in the play as a great (and arguably arrogant) leader who fears nothing, Caesar is warned by Artemidorus, The Soothsayer and wife (Calphurnia) alike not to go to the Senate on the "ides of March" the very day he is assassinated.

Caesar later returns in the play as a ghost which haunts Brutus in Act V. Easily flattered by Decius Brutus (not to be confused with Brutus), Caesar appears to us as a man almost guided not so much by his own will but what he believes are the expectations his people have of "Caesar." This is why he is reluctant to show fear, Caesar, as he frequently refers to himself in the third person, fears nothing and can show no sign of weakness or indeed mortality...

Note: The "ides of March" is the fifteenth of March (See Act II, Scene I, Line 58).

Octavius Caesar: The adopted son of Caesar, Octavius by history, ultimately became ruler of the Roman Empire following his defeat of Mark Antony in Egypt (See Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra). In this play, Octavius with Mark Antony and Lepidus (The Second Triumvirate), destroy the forces of Brutus and Cassius on the Plains of Philippi, which results in the death of both these conspirators (Act V).

Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony): One of the Triumvirs (leaders) who rule Rome following Caesar's assassination. Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius) is famous in this play for his speech, which turns the Romans against Brutus following his group's assassination of Caesar. Famous for the immortal lines "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;" (Act III, Scene II, Line 79), Mark Antony with fellow Triumvirs, Octavius and Lepidus later defeat Brutus and Cassius on the Plains of Philippi in Act V.

M. Aemilius Lepidus: The last of the Triumvirs, this old man holds little real power and is used in Mark Antony's own words as a loyal, trusted man "Meet [fit] to be sent on errands:" (Act IV, Scene I, Line 13).

Cicero: A well-known orator (public speaker) and Senator, Cicero is killed by the Triumvirs (Mark Antony, Octavius and Lepidus) following Caesar's assassination.

Publius: A Senator who travels with Caesar to the Senate House the day Caesar is killed, he witnesses Caesar's assassination. Though deeply "confounded" or confused and shaken by the assassination of Caesar (Act III, Scene I, Line 86), he is used by Brutus to tell the citizens of Rome that Caesar aside, no one else will be hurt (Act III, Scene I, Lines 89-91).

Popilius Lena: The Senator who terrifies Cassius by telling Cassius that he hopes his "enterprise [assassination attempt] today may thrive" or be successful just as Caesar goes into the Senate house on the "ides of March" (Act III, Scene I, Line 13).

Marcus Brutus: The most complex character in this play, Brutus is one of the men who assassinate Caesar in the Senate. Brutus is complex, because he does not kill Caesar for greed, envy nor to preserve his social position like so many of the other conspirators against Caesar. This Brutus makes very clear in his speech in Act III, Scene II (Lines 12-76), when he explains his actions as being for the good of Rome.

Unlike the other conspirators, Brutus is in fact a dear friend of Caesar's but kills his beloved friend not for who he is, but what he could become as a King. It is for this reason that when Brutus dies by suicide in Act V, Mark Antony describes his bitter enemy by saying "This [Brutus] was the noblest Roman of them all;" (Act V, Scene V, Line 68).

Mark Antony recognizes with these words that Brutus acted from a sense of civic duty, not malice, nor greed nor envy.

In academic circles, Brutus is still a source of much heated debate; does assassinating a leader for the good of the people constitute bravery worthy of a tragic hero or can the end never justify the means? The controversy on whether Brutus is tragic hero or villain still rages...

Ironically, though it can be argued that Brutus assassinated his friend to prevent one man ruling the Roman Empire, history was later to make this a reality. Octavius, one of the Triumvirs who defeated Brutus and Cassius, was later to become a Roman Emperor ruling the entire Roman Empire alone following his victory over Cleopatra and Mark Antony.

Cassius: One of the original conspirators against Caesar. Like the other conspirators he fears what life under King Caesar's rule could mean for him and the privileges he has.

Unlike the other conspirators however, Cassius plays a leading role in Caesar's assassination. It is he who gathers those against Caesar around him and it is Cassius who carefully manipulates Brutus to their cause by appealing to Brutus' sense of civic duty which believes that Caesar as a King would be bad for the people of Rome and by Cassius' clever use of forged letters.

The great thinker of the conspiracy, his advice is continually overruled by Brutus with tragic results for the conspirators.

First, his advice to kill Mark Antony as well as Caesar is ignored leading to Mark Antony becoming their greatest enemy.

Later at Caesar's funeral, Cassius' advice that Mark Antony should not speak at the funeral is also ignored leading to Antony turning the masses against the previously popular conspirators.
Finally in Act V, Brutus ignores Cassius' advise to stay on high ground, leading to a battle in the plains of Philippi, a battle favored by Mark Antony and Octavius, their enemies. Like Brutus, he dies by suicide in Act V, when fearing Brutus dead, he commits suicide.

Casca: One of the conspirators against Caesar, he starts the actual assassination of Caesar by stabbing first from behind.

Terminus: The only conspirator who does not actually stab Caesar, he is the man responsible for saving Mark Antony's life following Caesar's assassination. He leads Mark Antony away from the Senate house following the assassination and he backs up Brutus' suggestion that Mark Antony's life be spared.

Ligarius: The reluctant assassin, Caius Ligarius at first hesitates in killing Caesar, but later enthusiastically follows the others in killing Caesar after Brutus restores his conviction.

Decius Brutus: A man who lures Caesar to his death by his deep understanding of Caesar's true vanity...

Not to be confused with Marcus Brutus, who is referred to in Julius Caesar simply as as Brutus. It is Decius Brutus who convinces Caesar to turn up to the Senate on the "ides of March" after Caesar announces that he is unwilling to attend the day's Senate because of his wife Calphurnia's dream foretelling doom. Decius Brutus turns Calphurnia's dream into a reason to attend the Senate by cleverly reinterpreting its negative imagery to instead symbolize Caesar's triumph.

Metellus Cimber: A conspirator against Caesar, it is his petition or request to Caesar for his brother's banishment to be overturned, that allows the conspirators to move close to Caesar, before they assassinate him with multiple stab wounds...

Cinna: A conspirator against Caesar, who plays a key role in enlisting Brutus to their cause. It is Cinna who suggests to Cassius that Brutus join their conspiracy. Also assists Cassius' manipulation of Brutus by placing Cassius' letters responsible for manipulating Brutus where Brutus is sure to find and read them... Indirectly responsible for Cinna, the poet's death; since it is he the mob originally wished to kill...

Flavius and Marullus: Two Tribunes introduced to us at the beginning of the play. Their conversation reveals the deep mistrust and fear many in Rome have about Caesar's growing popularity, which eventually leads to Caesar's assassination. These two men criticize Rome's citizens for praising Caesar almost without reason and are later put to death or "put to silence" for "pulling scarfs off Caesar's images," (Act I, Scene II, Line 291) during the Feast of Lupercal in Act I, Scene I (Note: Flavius the Tribune is not the same person as Flavius, a soldier whom appears in Act IV).

Artemidorus: The man who nearly saves Caesar, he presents Caesar with a letter warning warning Caesar that he will be killed (Act II, Scene III). Caesar however does not read the letter and so proceeds to his doom...

Cinna, the Poet: A humble poet, this man dies because he has the wrong name at the wrong time. After Mark Antony incites (angers) the people of Rome against Caesar's assassins, Cinna who shares the same name as one of the assassins, is killed despite his explaining his identity as a poet. The mob, eager for blood, kill him regardless and use the excuse that they never liked his poems much anyway (Act III, Scene III, Lines 1-43).

Lucilius, Titinius, Messala, Young Cato and Volumnius: Friends to Brutus and Cassius.

Varro, Clitus, Claudius, Strato, Lucius and Dardanius: Servants to Brutus.

Pindarus: A servant to Cassius, he is also the messenger bearing the wrong news... In Act V, Pindarus misreports to Cassius that Titinius, a scout sent to Brutus' forces was captured by the Triumvir's forces when he was actually welcomed by Brutus' army. On Pindarus' information, Cassius assumes that Brutus has been defeated and so thinking all is lost, decides to kill himself, using Pindarus to hold a sword out which he runs onto, the very sword, Cassius used against Caesar...

Calphurnia: The wife of Caesar, she begs her husband not to go to the Senate on "the ides of March" (March 15) when she cries out "'Help, ho! They murder Caesar!'" three times in her sleep, the day before Caesar's death. This and strange occurrences such as a lioness whelping in the streets of Rome,"Fierce fiery warriors" fighting in the clouds (Act II, Scene II, Lines 12-24) and graves yawning and yielding up their dead, convince Calphurnia that her husband Julius Caesar, must stay home on the "ides of March" (the fifteenth of March). Unfortunately just as Calpurnia convinces Caesar to stay home and avoid the death that awaits him, Decius Brutus (not to be confused with Brutus), arrives at Caesar's home convincing him that these images mean that Rome will be revived by Caesar's presence at the Senate the following day. Caesar ignores his wife's pleas and meets his bloody destiny at the hands of Brutus and company the very next day.

Portia: The wife of Marcus Brutus, she tries to learn from Brutus the assassination conspiracy he is hiding from her. She is later assumed to have committed suicide at the end of the play when her death is reported as being under strange circumstances...

Senators, Citizens, Guards, Attendants and others...

Julius Caesar Quotes? Who Said It?, What Makes it Important?

A Shakespearean quote such as "To be, or not to be" and the famous "O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?" quote form some of literature's most celebrated lines and if asked to recite one of Shakespeare's most famous quotations the majority of people would choose one of these. However, many expressions that we use every day originated in Shakespeare's plays. We use the Bard's words all of the time in everyday speech, however, we are often totally unaware that we are 'borrowing' sayings from his work - we frequently quote Shakespeare! Will Shake-speare is attributed with writing 38 plays, 154 sonnets and 5 other poems and used about 21,000 different words. Shake-speare is credited by the Oxford English Dictionary with the introduction of nearly 3,000 words into the language. It's no wonder that expressions from his works are an 'anonymous' part of the English language.

"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him". Quote (Act III, Scene II).

"But, for my own part, it was Greek to me". - Julius Caesar Quote (Act I, Scene II).

"A dish fit for the gods". Quote (Act II, Scene I).

"Cry "Havoc," and let slip the dogs of war". Julius Caesar Quote (Act III, Sc. I).

"Et tu, Brute!" Quote (Act III, Scene I).

"Men at some time are masters of their fates: The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves, that we are underlings". - (Quote Act I, Scene II).

"Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more". Quote (Act III, Scene II).

"Beware the ides of March". - (Quote Act I, Scene II).

"This was the noblest Roman of them all". - (Quote Act V, Sc. V).

"When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept: Ambition should be made of sterner stuff". - (Quote Act III, Sc. II).

"Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look; He thinks too much: such men are dangerous" Julius Quote (Act I, Scene II).

"For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men". - (Quote Act III, Sc. II).

"As he was valiant, I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him" . Quote (Act III, Sc. II).

"Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once.Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, it seems to me most strange that men should fear;Seeing that death, a necessary end, will come when it will come". Julius Caesar Quote (Act II, Scene II).

Having Problems Reading Julius Caesar

Check out SPARKS NOTES PARALLEL VERSION OF JULIUS CAESAR by CLICKING HERE which puts Shakespeare's words next to more common language to make reading easier.

Making In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

Many high school teachers will require students to use MLA Style for their papers. You should check with the instructor for information about line spacing, margins, and a title page, since teachers may have their own preferences.

Your teacher will probably provide a style guide of some sort to address these parts of the paper.

As you write your paper in MLA style, you will be talking about things you found in your research. Therefore, you will have to indicate in your text exactly where you found the information.

This can be done with parenthetical citations.

When you make reference to someone else's idea, either through paraphrasing or quoting them directly, you provide the author’s name and the page number of the work in the text of your paper.

This is the parenthetical citation, and it is the alternative to using footnotes (like you will do if you use other styles found elsewhere on this site).

Here is an example of parenthetical citations:

Even today, many children are born outside the safety of hospitals (Kasserman 182).

This indicates that you are using information found in a book by somebody named Kasserman (last name) and it was found on page 182.

You may also give the same information in another way, if you want to name the author in your sentence. You might want to do this to add variety to your paper:

According to Laura Kasserman, “many children today do not benefit from the sanitary conditions which are available in modern facilities” (182). Many children are born outside the safety of hospitals.

Be sure to use quotation marks when quoting someone directly.

MLA Bibliography Tutorial and Guide

Suggested Reading
Electronic SourceWriting a Research PaperUsing a Library

Related Articles
Books About MLA Style

Thursday, April 30, 2009

Julius Caesar: Historical Background

Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Study Guide
Background Information


Ancient Rome 44 B.C.

The play takes place before Rome developed into an empire. Julius Caesar has just defeated Pompey after a long civil war. He returns to Rome triumphantly and is in a position to take power. Some people are concerned because dictators have taken power before.
Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, and he was also responsible for the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC.
Leading his legions across Rubicon, Caesar sparked civil war in 49 BC that left him the undisputed master of the Roman world. After assuming control of the government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He was proclaimed dictator for life, and he heavily centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic. This forced the hand of a friend of Caesar, Marcus Junius Brutus, who then conspired with others to murder the dictator and restore the Republic. This dramatic assassination occurred on the Ides of March (March 15th) in 44 BC and led to another Roman civil war. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Roman Senate officially sanctified him as one of the Roman deities.
Caesar's military campaigns are known in detail from his own written Commentaries (Commentarii), and many details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo. Other information can be gleaned from other contemporary sources, such as the letters and speeches of Caesar's political rival Cicero, the poetry of Catullus and the writings of the historian Sallust.


Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. Though in popular culture, it is believed that Brutus was the sole assasin of Julius Caesar, historically he was not alone in the dictator's assasination conspiracy, but was among possibly up to sixty men.

Other Brutus Links
1 Life
2 Chronology
3 Brutus in popular culture
3.1 Influence
3.2 Fiction
3.3 Drama
4 Family tree
5 Notes
6 External links


In Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, actors such as James Mason, Jason Robards and Richard Pasco have played the role of Marcus Brutus in television productions and films.

In Julius Caesar he is portrayed by Ian Duncan.

A fictionalised Marcus Junius Brutus appears in the 2005 television series Rome, played by
Tobias Menzies

Marcus Brutus also appears in the highly fictionalised 2005 six-part mini series Empire played by James Frain.


Julius Caesar
A great Roman general who has recently returned to Rome after a military victory in Spain. Julius Caesar is not the main character of the play that bears his name; Brutus has over four times as many lines, and the play does not show us Caesar's point of view. Nonetheless, virtually every other character is preoccupied with Caesar—specifically, with the possibility that Caesar may soon become king. If Caesar were to become king, it would mean the end of Rome's republican system of government, in which senators, representing the citizens of Rome, wield most of the power. To noblemen like Brutus and Cassius, who consider themselves the equals of Caesar or any other citizen, Caesar's coronation would mean they would no longer be free men but rather slaves. Caesar never explicitly says that he wants to be king—he even refuses the crown three times in a dramatic public display—but everything he says and does demonstrates that he regards himself as special and superior to other mortals. In his own mind, he seems already to be an absolute ruler.

A high-ranking, well-regarded Roman nobleman who participates in a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. Brutus is motivated by his sense of honor, which requires him to place the good of Rome above his own personal interests or feelings. Thus, he plots against Caesar in order to preserve the republic even though he loves and admires Caesar personally. While the other conspirators act out of envy and rivalry, only Brutus truly believes that Caesar's death will benefit Rome. Brutus's sense of honor is also his weakness, as he tends to assume that his fellow Romans are as highminded as he is, which makes it easy for others to manipulate him.

A loyal friend of Caesar's. In contrast to the self-disciplined Brutus, Antony is notoriously impulsive and pleasure-seeking, passionate rather than principled. He is extremely spontaneous and lives in the present moment. As resourceful as he is unscrupulous, Antony proves to be a dangerous enemy of Brutus and the other conspirators.

A talented general and longtime acquaintance of Caesar. Cassius resents the fact that the Roman populace has come to revere Caesar almost as a god. He slyly leads Brutus to believe that Caesar has become too powerful and must die, finally converting Brutus to his cause by sending him forged letters claiming that the Roman people support the death of Caesar. Impulsive and unscrupulous like Antony, Cassius harbors no illusions about the way the political world works. A shrewd opportunist, he acts effectively but lacks integrity.

Caesar's adopted son and appointed successor. Octavius, who had been traveling abroad, returns after Caesar's death, then joins with Antony and sets off to fight Cassius and Brutus. Antony tries to control Octavius's movements, but Octavius follows his adopted father's example and emerges as the authoritative figure, paving the way for his eventual seizure of the reins of Roman government.

One of the conspirators. Casca is a tribune (an official elected to represent the common people of Rome) who resents Caesar's ambition. A rough and blunt-speaking man, Casca relates to Cassius and Brutus how Antony offered the crown to Caesar three times and how each time Caesar declined it. Casca insists, however, that Caesar was acting, manipulating the populace into believing that he has no personal ambition. Casca is the first to stab Caesar.

Caesar's wife. Calphurnia invests great authority in omens and portents. She warns Caesar against going to the Senate on the Ides of March, for she has had terrible nightmares and heard reports of many bad omens.

Brutus's wife and the daughter of a noble Roman (Cato) who took sides against Caesar. Portia, accustomed to being Brutus's confidante, is upset to find him so reluctant to speak his mind when she finds him troubled.

Flavius and Murellus
Two tribunes who condemn the plebeians for their fickleness in cheering Caesar when once they cheered for Caesar's enemy Pompey. Flavius and Murellus are punished for removing the decorations from Caesar's statues during Caesar's triumphal parade.

A Roman senator renowned for his oratorical skill. Cicero speaks at Caesar's triumphal parade. He later dies at the order of Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus.

The third member of Antony and Octavius's coalition. Though Antony has a low opinion of Lepidus, Octavius trusts Lepidus's loyalty.

A member of the conspiracy. Decius convinces Caesar that Calphurnia misinterpreted her dire nightmares and that, in fact, no danger awaits him at the Senate. Decius leads Caesar right into the hands of the conspirators.

Another Look at Key Characters

Julius Caesar
Although Caesar was one of the strongest individuals in history, Shakespeare presents him with a number of weaknesses. In spite of all of these weaknesses, it is the spirit of Caesar that pervades the whole play. At the end of the play, Brutus says, "Caesar, thou art mighty yet."

Brutus is the epitome of all that is gentle and good in man. His sterner qualities make him admirable; his gentler qualities make him lovable. He is one of the finest characters in all of Shakespeare's writing. Had Brutus been less idealistic and less merciful, he no doubt would have been successful in crushing the powerful forces of Caesar. His three mistakes cost him his life, but Brutus feels no enmity, even in death.

If ever Shakespeare presented characters in contrast, he does it in molding the conspiracy around Cassius and Brutus. Cassius is the realist, the shrewd contriver, the ambitious one. He is the clever psychologist who knows just how to manipulate Brutus' thoughts and how to bring him into the conspiracy. Cassius is a strong leader, but he has one weakness—his admiration for Brutus. That admiration overrules his better judgment and culminates in his downfall. Without Brutus in the play, Cassius would have emerged as a much stronger leader.

Marc Antony
At the time of Caesar's assassination, Antony was thirty-seven years old. Never taking life very seriously, he led a pleasure-loving existence. Because he was reckless, careless, and handsome, the people loved him. Antony proves himself to be clever when he addresses the crowd after Caesar’s murder and convinces them that Caesar was not ambitious.

Octavius was nineteen when Caesar was assassinated and only twenty-one when he and Antony defeated the conspirators at Philippi. Eleven years later, he sent Antony and Cleopatra to defeat and death. Shakespeare wrote about that subject in his play Antony and Cleopatra. Octavius ruled Rome for forty-one years (until 17 A.D.). He was called the august, the grand, the magnificent (Augustus).

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

English 10B Vocabulary: Unit 3 SAT/ACT Words

3.1 AMBIANCE (AM bee uns) mood, feeling; general atmosphere
Memory Link: Ambulance George did not enjoy the AMBIANCE in the AMBULANCE.

The AMBIANCE of the locker room after the team lost the championship was depressing.

For their daughter's birthday party, the Jeffersons' created an AMBIANCE of gaiety, decorating the gardent with bright balloons and ribbons.

The AMBIANCE in the Italian restaurant was delightful, there was soft music, candlelight and singing waiters.

3.2 GRANDILOQUENT (gran DIL uh kwunt) attempting to impress with big words or grand gestures
Memory Link: Grand Elephant The GRAND ELEPHANT made a GRANDILOQUENT speech.

It was another GRANDILOQUENT political affair; the candidates made the same old promises for lower taxes and more free services.

They may be eloquent, but here is nothing grand about pompous GRANDILOQUENT speakers.

The new teacher's GRANDILOQUENCE didn't fool the class one bit. She really knew very little about South American History.

3.3 GOSSAMER (GOSS uh mer) delicate floating cobwebs; a sheer gauzy fabric; something delicate, light, flimsy
Memory Link: CUSTOMER The spider's GOSSAMER captured many unhappy CUSTOMERS.

The bride wore a white silk wedding dress which touched the floor as she proceeded up the aisle to the altar. A GOSSAMER of fine Italian lace gently touched her face.

Between the audience and the actors on the stage hung a thing GOSSAMER of fabric, heightening the feeling that the actors were in a dream-like setting.

3.4 HARROWING (HARE roe ing) extremely distressed; disturbing or frightening
Memory Link: HARE ROWING A HARROWING experience for a HARE ROWING.

After the HARROWING experience when Eddies main parachute didn't open, and his emergerncy chute save him only at the last minute, he vowed never to jump again.

(HARRIED is to be troubled or bothered while HARROWING is to be frightened to the extreme.) At first we were HARRIED by the gang members and insulted, but later it became a HARROWING experience as they chased and threatened us with knives.

3.5 IRASCIBLE (i RAS uh bul) easily angered, irritable
Memory Link: WRESTLE BULLS When he became IRASCIBLE, the Masked Marvel would WRESTLE BULLS.

Normally, Rose was a pleasant wife and mother but if a member of her family prevented her from watching her favorite "soaps," she could become quite IRASCIBLE.

Uncle Tim was a real grouch, even on his birthday he would find a way to become so IRASCIBLE as a spoiled child.

The school principal became so IRASCIBLE even his teachers avoided speaking to him.

3.6 LASSITUDE (LAS uh tood) listlessness; torpor, weariness

After eating three servints of Thanksgiving dinner, George succumbed to a feeling of LASSITUDE and fell asleep on the couch.

Having worked for the cannery for twenty years without a raise, Charles became discouraged with his employers and approached his daily work with unenthusiastic LASSITUDE.

3.7 LACONIC (luh KAHN ik) brief, using few words
Memory Link: Grandma was laconic when giving grandpa his TONIC.

3.8 MYRIAD (MIR ee ud) an extremely large number
Memory Link: The trick MIRROR ADDs a myriad of reflections.

3.9 NOXIOUS(KNOCKS ee us) physically or mentally destructive, or harmful to human beings
Memory Link: Her overdose of perfume was so noxious that it knocked us off the bench.

3.10 QUEUE (Q) to form or to wait in line
Memory Link: The "Q's" formed a Q to jump into the alphabet soup.

Monday, April 20, 2009

In-Text Citation Examples & Resources

"How To" Appropriately Use MLA In-Text Citations in a Variety of Documented Writing Situations from Your Valuable Research & Research Cards

Your research cards should contain the information that you need to handle the "in-text" citation appropriately. I recommend that you not only provide a "slug" or "sub-headling" but--eventually--where this information will fit into your MLA Outline (i.e. II.A.1.) Notice that this sample is numbered in the right hand corner and that they page number(s) are in the bottom right hand corner. This card is a tad too thin in the amount of information that is included on it. Moreover, types of support include: direct quotations, an indirect quote, a paraphrase or a summary. Remember, though, that types of evidence include: facts, inferences, expert opinions, charts/graphs, statistics, personal experiences, interviews, and much more. I suggest that researchers include what type of evidence is being researched in the bottom right hand corner.

SAMPLE NOTECARD (ABOVE) TAKEN FROM:Denny, Rialta. "evasive4.tripod.com/notecardformat.gif." evasive4.vze.com. 13 Jan 2007. tripod.com/&h=550&w=750&sz=9&hl=en&sig2=R9Lgl_aUaYmJdkOLREQz2w&start

NOTE: After the first line of an MLA Work's Cited entry, the author is to indent the subsequent lines. This blog will not allow me to do so for you.
Correct Ways to Handle "In-Text" Citations

Single author named in parentheses.
Example: The tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences is referred to as a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one’s place in the world" (Sennett 11).

Note: The punctuation here uses a direct quotation. Notice that the end quotation mark ends prior to the "in-text" citation in parentheses. Notice that there is no commo, nor an abbreviation for page number. Also notice that the parentheses are followed by the appropriate punctuation mark.
Single author or Sinlge Source named in a signal phrase.

Example: Social historian Richard Sennett names the tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one’s place in the world" (11).

Note: If you introduce the author or source in the text of your paper (and there is no duplicate in the author's name or a book with the same exact title (not likely but possible), you need only include the page number of that source and not the source itself.
Two or more authors.

Example. Certain literacy theorists have gone so far as to declare that "the most significant elements of human culture are undoubtedly channeled through words, and reside in the particular range of meanings and attitudes which members of any society attach to their verbal symbols" (Goody and Watt 323).

Corporate author (organization, association, etc.).

Example. The federal government has funded research concerning consumer protection and consumer transactions with online pharmacies (Food and Drug Administration 125).

Works with no author.
Example. Several critics of the concept of the transparent society ask if a large society would be able to handle the complete loss of privacy ("Surveillance Society" 115).

Two or more works by the same author.

Example. In his investigation of social identity, The Uses of Disorder, Sennett defines adulthood as a stage where people "learn to tolerate painful ambiguity and uncertainty" (108).

Note: The author can identify which of the two works is being referenced by signaling it in his or her writing.
In a surprising move, Richard Sennett combines the idea of power with that of virtue: "the idea of strength is complex in ordinary life because of what might be called the element of its integrity" (Authority 19).

Note: In this situation, the author signifies which of the two works is being referenced--not in the text of the writing--but by using the title of the source in the in-text citation.
Work found in an anthology or edited collection.

Note: For an essay, short story, or other document included in an anthology or edited collection, use the name of the author of the work, not the editor of the anthology or collection, but use the page numbers from the anthology or collection.
Lawrence Rosenfield analyzes the way in which New York’s Central Park held a socializing function for nineteenth-century residents similar to that of traditional republican civic oratory (222).

Bible passage.

Unfortunately, the president could not recall the truism that "Wisdom is a fountain to one who has it, but folly is the punishment of fools" (New Oxford Annotated Bible, Prov. 20-22).

Note: The author needs to include the specific Bible in the in-text citation.
Secondary source of a quotation (someone quoted within the text of another author).

As Erickson reminds us, the early psychoanalysts focused on a single objective: "introspective honesty in the service of self enlightenment" (qtd. in Weiland 42).

Note: If one author is quoted by another, this is the appropriate way to handle it.

Web page.

Abraham Lincoln's birthplace was designated as a National Historical Site in 1959 (National Park Service).

Note: Internet citations follow the style of printed works. Personal or corporate author and page number should be given ONLY if they exist on the website itself.

Other Awesome Online Sources for In-Text Citations and Work's Cited Style





Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Works Cited Entries & Source Card Style

Works Cited Entries & Source Card Style

Duke Universities Libraries Site

This is a great site to help you understand how to handle "in-text" citations and "works cited" entries. Please make sure that you choose the Modern Language Association (MLA) entry. This site shows students how to handle "works cited" entries for a variety of other styles: APA, Chicago, Turabian and CSE. Scroll down for web-site link.

Pay close attention to the guidelines given at the bottom of each entry for specific important information that you must gather for each of the different types of sources.

Note: I would recommend that you letter and not number each of your souces. I think it is easier to keep them separate. Then, when you tie a notecard to a source you can use a letter and a number in the upper, right hand corner to indicate "which" source your note cards came from. Also note that the second line (and all others after it) of this MLA Entry should be indented. I also find it important to list the ISBN number, call number or location in the bottom left corner if one needs to find the source again for reference.

Printed Journals, Journal Article with Multiple Authors, Information from an Online Journal, Full-Text Article from a Database.

Magazines: Printed Magazines, On-Line Magazines, Full-Text Article from a Database.

Books: Book with a Single Author, Book with Two Authors, Book with Three or More Authors, Electronic Book, Article from Within a Book, Encyclopedias and Other Multi-Volume Books.

Newspaper Articles: Printed Newspapers, Online Newspapers, Full-Text Article from a Database.

Primary Sources: Letters, Interviews, Motion Picture, Online Digitized Collection.

Other Materials: Web Page, Online Posting, Email Message, Book Reviews, Government Documents


Do you want even more help? See Noodle Tools and Son of Citation Machine below.

Noodle Tools

Noodle Tools is a free tool to easily create MLA Works Cited pages. You need to go to the homepage, sign up for a free account and the site will take you through all of the other steps. Try it! You'll love it.


Son of Citation Machine

Citation Machine is one of many on-line cites that will assist a student who has gathered all of the "vital" information about sources: journals, books, newspapers, primary sources, other sources. Please have all of the important information collected if you want this "short-cut" to work for you. Also, make sure that you choose MLA as your "style".


Tuesday, March 3, 2009

DAILY ORAL LANGUAGE: ACT Preparation--Grammar, Usage & Mechanics & Rhetorical Skills Quiz 1

Daily Oral Language Assignments

Each day of Mr. McLaughlin's English 10B Class will begin with a short "sponge" activity. On some days we will begin with the ACT preparation assignments like the ones listed in this entry.

On other days we will be working with ACT/SAT Vocabulary words. For your convenience & for your study, these are being posted here for your convenience and to study for our in class quizzes.

Your learning of this material will be covered on our quizzes. We will have a quiz each two weeks.


ACT Test Preparation Passage I.1, Day 1.doc

ACT Test Preparation Passage I.2, Day 2.doc

ACT Test Preparation Passage I.3, Day 3.doc